Types of Immuno-Cell Therapy

It is known that there are several types of immune cells in our body and each type of the immune cells has different role in immune system. In general, immune system has two major mechanisms, so-called as innate immune system and adaptive immune system, to eliminate virus, bacteria, and others. Characteristic of innate immune system is to recognize pathogen for immediate immune response in non-specific manner. On the other hand, characteristic of adaptive immune system is to have antigen specific response after activation by the innate response.

In connection to the mechanisms in the above, Immuno-Cell Therapy also has two types of treatment, such as antigen specific therapy and antigen non-specific therapy. We offer 4 types of Immuno-Cell Therapy in our clinics. Each therapy is comprised of different functions of immune cells and is cultivated in a different manner. We select appropriate type of the Immuno-Cell Therapy for each patient by condition and primary treatment. 4 types of the Immuno-Cell Therapy as followed;-

Dendritic Cell Vaccine Therapy

[Patient]Blood Collection -> 1.Culturing of Monocytes -> 2.Differentation of Monocytes into DC -> 3.DCs are cultured outside of the body with proteins extracted from tumor lysate or synthesized peptides(tumor lysate resected from surgery, synthesized peptides) -> Infusion

Dendritic Cell Vaccine Therapy is well-known as one of the tumor specific Immuno-Cell Therapies. The therapy is comprised of Dendritic Cells ("DC",) which present tumor antigens to T-Lymphocytes. Types of DC Vaccine Therapy are; 1) with tumor lysate resected from surgery, 2) with synthesized peptides (conjunctions of several to some dozen of amino acids,) and 3) directly injected into tumor local. In connection to 1) and 2) of the DC Vaccine Therapy, DCs are differentiated from monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood of patient, and then are cultured outside of the body with proteins extracted from tumor lysate or synthesized peptides which enable DCs to present antigens on their surface. In other words, DCs are educated and memorized specific target by up-taking antigen of tumor cells outside of the body. However, DCs do not attack tumor by themselves, but present certain target on their surface to T-Lymphocytes, which will be induced to directly attack tumor. Therefore, it is expected that such cultured DCs will efficiently induce as many lymphocytes as possible inside of the body after the infusion of DC Vaccine Therapy.

Through our accumulated experience in Immuno-Cell Therapy, we originally developed DC Vaccine Therapy using DCs co-pulsed with tumor antigen and Zoledronate. We also brought the novel electroporation technology, Cell Loading System, into the cell processing of DC Vaccine Therapy. By the combination of those technologies, DCs can efficiently take up more tumor antigens, resulted in higher induction of tumor antigen-specific CTLs than conventional co-cultured method.

Note) Currently, we may not be able to offer the DC Vaccine Therapy to oversea patients, since such therapy mostly needs the tumor lysate of a patient in culturing process. Please consult when you have doctor consultation.

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αβT-cell Therapy (Alpha-Beta T-cell Therapy)

[Patient]Blood Collection -> 1.Lymphocytes -> 2.Culturing of Lymphocytes -> 3.Proliferation of αβT-Lymphocytes -> Infusion

αβT-cell Therapy comprises of mainly αβT -Lymphocytes which have high ability of cellular cytotoxicity among immune cells. We isolate lymphocytes, including, αβT-cell, γδT-cell, NK cell, and other cells, from peripheral blood of a patient, and activate and expanded with agents and media outside of the body. After the activation and expansion of the immune cells, we wash out media and agents, and then reinfuse such immune cells, which αβT-cells are almost 90% of all population, to the patient.

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γδT-cell Therapy (Gamma-Delta T-Cell Therapy)

[Patient]Blood Collection -> 1.Lymphocytes -> 2.Culturing of Lymphocytes -> 3.Proliferation of γδT-Lymphocytes -> Infusion

γδT-cell Therapy is comprised of majority of γδT-cells which are generally within several percentage of T-Lymphocytes. We selectively activate and expand these γδT-cells with advanced cultivating technology. After the activation of the lymphocytes, number of the γδT-cells will be much more than the αβT-cells. It is expected that γδT-cell Therapy may lead higher efficacy than αβT-cell Therapy against certain types of cancer.

We have implemented collaborative clinical studies of using γδT-cell therapy with Japanese Red Cross Medical Center and the University of Tokyo Hospital since 2005, and have found that γδT-cell has several different functions, such as recognition and attacking mechanism of cancer cell, from αβT-cell. Therefore, we expect that γδT-cell Therapy can be used for new treatment option to cancer patient with current types of Immuno-Cell Therapy.

It is considered that γδT-cell Therapy can be practiced against bone metastasis and bone tumor, as Zoledronate, which is a drug for inhibiting digestion of bone, is used in cultivation of the γδT-cell Therapy. γδT-cell Therapy is also expected for synergy effect by combination therapy with antibody drug (ex. Herceptin), and has the same mechanism of cell-mediated immunity, resulting antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity against cancer.

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